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Drilling

The oil well is created by drilling a hole into the earth with an oil rig. A steel pipe (casing) is placed in the hole, to provide structural integrity to the newly drilled wellbore. Holes are then made in the base of the well to enable oil to pass into the bore. Finally a collection of valves called a “Christmas Tree” is fitted to the top, the valves regulating pressures and controlling flows.

DWOG rigs are capable of carrying out a variety of drilling activities, including directional, horizontal, pad drilling, under-balanced drilling and re-entry work. All rigs are engineered to accept top drives. They are designed to perform under extreme weather conditions, because drilling operations run 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year.

Fuel Additives

Sivakumar Kannappan

437/3B, EAST 3RD STREET,

PUDUKKOTTAI, TAMILNADU,

INDIA.

+916369414570

newfort1995@gmail.com

1.Brief introduction
Unleaded gasoline antiknock additive mainly composed of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and a small quantity of stabilizer and dispersant. It is used in the gasoline blended mainly and boost the octane number of gasoline efficiently.
2.Physical and chemical indexes of MMT

Items Units Indexes
MMT98 MMT62
Appearance Orange liquid Orange liquid
Manganese weight,% 24.4 15.1
Density(20℃) g/ml 1.38 1.11
Boiling point 232 179/212
Freezing point -1 -30
Flash point 82 40
Solubility Gasoline Mixing soluble Mixing soluble
Chemical composition MMT, % >98 >62
Other supplementary liquids, % <2  <2

3.Antiknock principle of MMT
MMT can be decomposed into small particles of active manganese oxides, owing to their facial function, these small particles effectively incorporate with those super oxides already existed in the engine, which reduces the concentration of the super oxides before combustion, meanwhile cuts a part of chain reaction, then delays the automatic lighting time, reduces the burning speed, and strengthens the fuel antiknock function.
Adding a certain amount additive in the liquid product, its function principle: it can raise the light stability of the main antiknock additive content (MMT), In the meantime, after the gasoline burning ,additive can help to put metals oxide produced by the main antiknock additive burned outside of the derivation machine , promote gasoline burning completely; reducing the tail gas pollutants exhaust, reducing the burnable room to accumulate carbon , raising a product comprehensive usage function.
4.Functions of MMT
1) The octane number can be enhanced by 2-3 units by adding MMT to the gasoline.
2) Increase engine driving power, decrease its oil consumption
3) Better soluble abilities with MTBE and ethanol
4) Reduce disposal of pollutants in automobile tail gas
5) Improve octane number function to the waste gas cat of the automobile
6) Improve operating of oil refining
7) Increase the flexibility of the gasoline concoction
5.The MMT product storage, transports and usage
1) Packing
Packed in 200L zinc iron plating pail, net weight 200 kg/pail, or packed in specially made storage tan, 5 T, 10 T per tank or as required
2) The storage request
A. Storage at cool, dry and ventilation conditions, far away from the fire source.
B.The gasoline sample and staying kind with MMT must use a brown bottle.
3) Operation method
MMT is directly blending into the gasoline by pro ratio.